Tuesday, October 30, 2007

Editorial: Ethics and Neurosciences and Cognitive Sciences

Ethics of Science and Technology:
explorations of the frontiers of science and ethics

A collection of selected publications by
the first two laureates of the Avicenna Prize for Ethics in Science

Henry Greely has an editorial in Science magazine this week titled "On Neuroethics". Henry Greely is a Professor of Law at Stanford University who has long worked on legal and ethical issues in the biosciences.

Neuroscience and cognitive science have grown greatly. For example, on 3 November 2007, the Society for Neuroscience annual meeting is expected to draw more than 30,000 scientists to discuss brains. New knowledge has begun to spill out from the laboratory into society and as a result new ethical, legal, and social concerns are being created.
"The brains of "normal" people in some imaging studies yield clinically significant findings disconcertingly often: 8 to 10% of the time in some studies. What kind of information and follow-up do we owe those people? Other studies may have military implications: Suppose brain stimulation created an indefinitely awake and alert soldier or pilot? Will neuroscience be a new source of dual-use technologies such as those we worry about for biological or chemical warfare? Other researchers are studying "the neuroscience of ethics," as philosophers and neuroscientists explore how brains make decisions when confronted with moral dilemmas. The implications are unclear, but the work is fascinating."
Last year the Neuroethics Society was created as an interdisciplinary group of scholars, scientists and clinicians who share an interest in the social, legal, ethical and policy implications of advances in neuroscience. More generally,the growing interconnections between moral philosophy and research that draws upon neuroscience, developmental psychology, and evolutionary biology.requires serious attention from a broad interdisciplinary perspective.

Greely emphasizes that more work has to be done to develop Neuroethics:
In these days of tight federal budgets, money is hard to get. But to fund science without supporting work on its social consequences will ensure that the neuroscience revolution brings far too much social pain and chaos along with its scientific and medical breakthroughs.
UNESCO held a meeting in 1995 on the topic of Ethics and Neurosciences. Moreover, within UNESCO's Social and Human Sciences Program, there is an Ethics program with substantial programs on:
The ethics of neuroscience and cognitive science and their expanding applications and technologies raises concerns that would benefit not only from discussion within the United States, but in an international forum. Not only could multicultural perspectives help to clarify the ethical issues, but would help to avoid and/or resolve intercultural misunderstandings and conflict.

UNESCO is the obvious venue for such discussions. It is to be hoped that the U.S. National Commission will strongly recommend to the State Department that the permanent delegation recommend UNESCO become more important in the evolving debates about the ethics of neuroscience and cognitive science.

Saturday, October 27, 2007

Calls for New Nominations for Memory of the World International Register

UNESCO is inviting new nomination proposals for inscription on its Memory of the World International Register, a list of library collections and archive holdings of world significance, which was established in 1997 to promote documentary heritage of universal value.
Nominations should ideally be submitted through the National Commission for UNESCO or the Memory of the World National Committee in the country where it is located. Proposals should be based on the selection criteria listed in the General Guidelines to Safeguard Documentary Heritage, which stipulates that the most important criterion for inscription on the register is the universal significance of the documentary heritage.

The deadline for the submission of nominations is 31 March 2008 and no late submissions will be accepted.

World Science Day for Peace and Development

Established by UNESCO in 2001, the WSDPD is celebrated on 10 November each year. The Day is an occasion to remind the UNESCO's mandate and commitment on science.

The WSDPD's objectives are:

  • To strengthen public awareness on the role of science for peaceful and sustainable societies
  • To promote national and international solidarity for a shared science between countries
  • To renew national and international commitment for the use of science for the benefit of societies
  • To draw attention to the challenges faced by science and raise support for the scientific endeavor

Friday, October 26, 2007

The revised Science program

There was a major evaluation of the UNESCO science programs done over the last two years. The Director General of UNESCO has submitted a report to the General Conference (34C/13) detailing how UNSCO will
redo the Science programs to conform to the Science Review Group's

I quote at length from the report:
UNESCO’s leadership enhanced through new global initiatives (Recommendation 8)

In the coming years there must be increased proactive engagement on the part of UNESCO at the highest levels of the United Nations as well as with its specialized agencies and programmes, demonstrating UNESCO’s real comparative advantage within the United Nations system – being the only agency which, through its mission, is able to bring together the sciences, education and culture.

This comparative advantage may prove crucial, for instance, within the United Nations system’s response to global climate change. The Natural Sciences Sector – largely through the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) – contributed background scientific data and monitoring to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). However, UNESCO’s role in education and the social sciences will be equally critical as the Organization contributes to mitigation and adaptation to global climate change.

The Science Sectors will seek to take advantage of UNESCO’s respected global outreach and convening power with both governments and civil society to assure the Organization’s major advocacy role within the United Nations system for science and the use of scientific knowledge. “Science for science’s sake” is no longer a viable option; science must be a key component of sustainable development and poverty eradication, peace, intercultural dialogue and in addressing the challenges of emerging issues such as global climate change and their consequences. Investment in science and technology is not a luxury, but vital to sustainable development.

Ministers of Science, Technology and Higher Education will be invited periodically to round table events (see Recommendation 1) to discuss new and emerging issues in the sciences, their Member States’ science needs, and the formulation of common approaches, thus reinforcing UNESCO’s legitimacy as the global meeting point and forum on science at the intergovernmental level. In addition, other dialogues and debates on new fields of research and emerging ethical and societal issues will be convened.

Organization-wide actions will be formulated on future-oriented studies concerning emerging issues of relevance to UNESCO’s fields of competence.

Consultations will be held on the feasibility of convening, in 2009, a major review of followup to the UNESCO-ICSU World Conference on Science (Budapest, 1999) and its two principal documents: the Declaration on Science and the Use of Scientific Knowledge and the Science Agenda – Framework for Action.

Science and Technology for Sustainable Development: Round Table of Ministers of Science at UNESCO

Ministers of Science from some 60 countries are meeting in Paris on 26-27 October to debate how science and technology can contribute to sustainable development. They are also seeking to define how UNESCO can best work with its Member States to meet their needs through international cooperation. The round table is taking place during the 34th session of UNESCO’s General Conference (16 October to 3 November).

Live Video Webcast - Ministerial Round Table "Science and Technology for Sustainable Development and the Role of UNESCO" from 10 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. in Room X, Watch

New Edition of A World of Sciencec

A World of Science (October - December 2007)

CONTENTS Vol. 5 No. 4

p 2 - The rise of animals (Part I)

p 9 - Water education comes to China's schools
p 10 - Mission rallies support for DRC's mountain gorillas
p 10 - Oman's Oryx Sanctuary dropped from World heritage List
p 11- UNESCO joins UN response to Peruvian earthquake
p 12 - A master plan for science and technology in Mongolia

p 13 -Robert Hepworth on why many of the world's most endangered species are migratory

p 16 - The day Mount Manaro stirred
p 21 - Mini-laboratories for the Middle East

p 24 - Diary
p 24 - New releases

From the editorial by Walter Erdelen, Assistant Director-General for Natural Sciences:
Although tragedies like the Indian Ocean tsunami and Hurricane Katrina graphically demonstrated how indispensable geoscientific knowledge can be in mitigating natural disasters, geological knowledge benefits all of society all of the time because everything we cannot grow - all the power and raw materials on which society depends - comes from the Earth and therefore has to be 'unearthed' by geologists. With fewer students opting for geoscience courses, Earth scientists fear we may beheading for a collapse of geological educational infrastructure worldwide. This could happen because, by the time rising prices encourage further exploration, historically low student recruitment may have already led to the closure and dispersal of university departments. Given the central importance of Earth sciences for our future, this prospect should worry everyone.

Over the next 18 months, the International Year of Planet Earth - initiated jointly by UNESCO and the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) - will be urging political leaders to act.

The Year will be officially launched at UNESCO headquarters on 12-13 February.On its list of things to do: reducing vulnerability to natural and human-induced hazards; improving understanding of the medical aspects of Earth science; discovering new natural resources and making them available in a sustainable manner; getting under Earth's living skin: soil; building safer structures and expanding urban areas by utilizing natural subsurface conditions; determining the non-human factor in climatechange; detecting deep and poorly accessible groundwater; and removing some of the question marks surrounding the evolution of life.

Member States reach consensus after Ministerial Round Table

Following debates at the Ministerial Round Table on Education and Economic Development on 19-20 October, a communiqué has been issued based on recommendations by 96 Member States.

Related links

Co Sponsors of a Resolution to Support Literacy Conferences

Following the White House Conference on Literacy held in conjunction with the last United Nations Summit, UNESCO is embarking on a series of conferences in support of global literacy including in Qatar, China, Mali, India, Costa Rica
and Azerbaijan.

A resolution was introduced asking member states to support this series. It was jointly sponsored by:
  • CUBA,
  • SPAIN and

“International Forum of Civil Society – UNESCO’s Partners”

An International Forum of Civil Society was held by UNESCO on 25 October, during the 34th session of UNESCO’s General Conference (16 October to 3 November).

Since its inception, UNESCO has recognized that non-governmental organizations and foundations play an important role in international cooperation in the service of peoples.

For more than a half-century, UNESCO has enjoyed cooperative relations with a number of such organizations in its fields of competence, thereby enabling it to work with civil society in achieving its objectives and to disseminate through them its democratic and ethical ideals.

Currently, UNESCO is enjoying official relations with 305 international NGOs and 27 foundations and similar institutions which are working in the fields of competence of the Organization. In addition to this formal framework, the Organization has been carrying out a range of activities hand in hand with NGOs, not only at international and regional levels, but also at national level.

Celebration of the 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was adopted as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations on 10 December 1948. UNESCO contributed to its elaboration and adoption, in particular by presenting a report which confirmed that the human rights standards included in the draft of the Declaration had their foundation in all cultures and all civilizations.

The adoption of the Declaration is commemorated on 10 December every year, proclaimed by the United Nations as Human Rights Day. Important events and celebrations are organized worldwide on and around this Day. The 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration will be an opportunity for a major mobilization, especially taking into account the commitments of the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals, as well as the 2005 World Summit, at which all Member States acknowledged the importance of human rights.

The 60th anniversary is an opportunity to assess the situation with regard to the rights within UNESCO’s competence (namely
  • the right to education,
  • the right to freedom of opinion and expression, including the right to seek, receive and impart information,
  • the right to take part in cultural life and
  • the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications).
To highlight the advancements and analyse the shortcomings with a view to determining the action required in order to promote their implementation, two international conferences are to be organized respectively around the themes:
  • The rights within UNESCO’s competence: achievements, obstacles, perspectives for the future;
  • Human rights education: current situation and perspectives for the future.

President's Science Advisor at the UNESCO Roundtable

John H. Marburger, III, Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy in the Executive Office of the President of the United States addressed the UNESCO Ministerial Roundtable on
"Science, Technology and Innovation for Sustainable Development
and the Role of UNESCO" on October 26, 2007.

The remarks are reprinted in full here:
I am pleased to speak in this forum - more than two years following the previous UNESCO Ministerial Roundtable in June 2005. Since that time, science and technology have continued to advance at a rapid pace, and that is a good thing because the challenges of our increasingly global societies have been advancing too. I believe we can meet these challenges only through vigorous and responsible application of knowledge gained through the methods of science and applied through the ingenuity of men and women in every society.

Many of the challenges we face grow from the natural desire of people everywhere to improve the quality of their lives, and not only for themselves during their own lifetimes, but for their children and all future generations. Life-quality depends on access to adequate housing, food, water, health-care, education, and opportunities to contribute meaningfully to the welfare of our societies. As simple as these requirements may seem, they imply a technical infrastructure that does not exist today. To name only a single example, but one of the most important ones, the global status of our technology for generating and using energy is simply not sustainable.

Even if traditional energy technologies were environmentally benign, which for the most part they are not, they are currently not deployed adequately in much of the developing world. Efforts to secure energy supplies to sustain even the current pace of development are already leading to international tensions that will only grow in the absence of innovations that can change the world's energy picture. No one, however, can be satisfied with innovations that work for a single lifetime, or even a few generations. We must find ways to satisfy the aspirations of the future, and not only of the present. Not innovation only, but sustainable innovations, are required to achieve this vision.

The concept of sustainability of course includes sustainable social infrastructures, which in turn require viable systems of government and education. The physical infrastructures of energy and agriculture, water and transportation, housing and health care, must be established and improved together with the social infrastructures. They go hand in hand. And how to achieve this complex interdisciplinary development depends very much on existing social and physical conditions in each country and each region of the world. Therefore I was much encouraged when two years ago in this forum the science ministers of more than 120 assembled nations found common themes for action - more than two dozen of them - upon which all agreed in the summarizing communiqué from that meeting.

When I read that communiqué again in preparation for today's Roundtable, I was impressed by how relevant the themes remain - you might say the themes are themselves sustainable! And this assembly could do worse than reaffirm them. I am eager to hear of accomplishments and progress toward the grand objectives we summarized two years ago. But we are gathered here not only to share news of our own progress, but also to guide the organization - UNESCO - through which we hope to foster them and to help each other along the way.

The 2005 Communiqué presented its positions under five sections: General Context, Education in Science, Capacity Building, Cooperation, and the Role of UNESCO. The General section affirmed the primary role of basic science in the "pursuit of knowledge that leads to the improvement of the human condition, the pursuit of sustainable development and, in general, the advancement of civilization." It acknowledged the need for new scientific knowledge to meet new challenges, identified basic science as- the "stable foundation" for technologies, and emphasized that scientific knowledge is the common heritage of all humankind. We agreed that ethics is essential in the practice of science, and that governmental decision-making should take science into account. The remaining sections are more specific but no less timely. They express themes and priorities that have been stated and discussed in many other forums. I will remind you only that they emphasize the importance of science education as indispensable to capacity building, of the strong link between education and research, of the need to link research as well as education to local needs, and of the exceptional power of partnerships, collaborations, and cooperation among countries.

What is important about this particular forum is its unique relationship to UNESCO, the organization our countries support to assist us, in carrying forward our visions for science, education, and sustainable development. Consequently the last section of the 2005 Communiqué has special significance. In that section we, the official representatives of the branches of our governments particularly concerned with the execution of science and technology policy, called upon UNESCO to consider 12 points, of which the first was "to place greater emphasis on promoting the basic sciences and science education with a view to the attainment of a science culture as a precursor of a knowledge-based society worldwide, through various means available at UNESCO." Nearly half of the remaining points dealt with education. Other points emphasized UNESCO's role in assistance in planning and strengthening science programs, promoting the mobility of teachers and researchers among countries, and fostering partnership and coordination across the UN system.

I can catch glimpses of these themes in the planning and budgeting material produced during the past year by UNESCO staff, but it is not easy to trace the influence of our work in the final results. Perhaps this is an issue we can discuss during the session on "guidelines for UNESCO action" tomorrow.

As I see it, however, one of the "inherited challenges" relevant to this morning's topic is UNESCO itself, and we need the strongest possible UNESCO to help us address our other emerging and legacy issues.

Compared to the global scale and scope of issues that fall within its purview, UNESCO has very limited resources to achieve our objectives. And judging from my own experience it is tempting under such circumstances to attempt to satisfy all demands, which usually ends in satisfying none of them. Therefore I strongly endorse recommendations made by UNESCO's Overall Review Committee on Science to establish a Science Advisory Committee that would provide external perspective and accountability for the science programs, especially as regards their focus on guidance achieved by a consensus of the key stakeholders such as the communities of Ministers that participate in these Roundtables. (The establishment of an external advisory committee is Recommendation 9 in the Committee's Report). Director General Matsuura certainly does not need more outsiders telling him what to do, but, especially in matters of science, the tradition of external advisory bodies has proven to be useful in maintaining focus on prioties and quality. Therefore I hope the current arrangement of an internal Task Force addressing these issues will prove to be an effective mechanism for implementing change. And I urge the Director General to build a proper external advisory body that takes full advantage of the expertise gained by the Overall Review Committee on Science and maintains its momentum.

I wish to thank Director General Matsuura for arranging the program for our Roundtable to include not only the very valuable exchanges of information about our own science and education initiatives, but also to encourage discussion of means by which UNESCO can be more effective and responsive to the needs of its stakeholders. In conclusion, let me say that I learned a great deal from presentations at the previous Roundtable, and look forward to a similarly rewarding experience during these next two days.

Thank you.

Wednesday, October 24, 2007

Reflections on the Future Role of UNESCO: Some Key Issues, Trends and Challenges

This document was prepared by the Director-General for the global consultation on the long-term future role of UNESCO. It takes into account observations made during an international consultative process and reflects UNESCO’s latest proposals on the United Nations reform. The key discussion, contained for some reason in an Appendix, begins with a summary of the key international trends which will affect the future of UNESCO and the United Nations system in general.

It confirms the need for continued attention to:

  • reduction of global poverty
  • promotion of peace and dialog among nations
  • Promoting cultural diversity, intercultural dialogue and multilingualism
  • Injecting ethical principles into globalization
  • Harnessing science for sustainable development and peace
  • Contributing to the fight against HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases
  • Promoting gender equality
  • Building knowledge societies
Recongnizing that the United Nations reform will have major implications for UNESCO, the report calls for continued efforts of UNESCO reengineer its processes and structure in order to improve efficiency and to concentrate its resource in those areas in which it has comparative advantage within in the UN system,

The report states that UNESCO has several clear advantages on which it can build its future strategic location and interventions:
  • its role as undisputed global specialized agency for education, natural sciences, human sciences, culture and communication, providing an indispensable link between normativeand technical/operational functions;
  • its designation and recognition as lead agency for complex, multi-stakeholder and longterm tasks (e.g. related to EFA through its Global Action Plan and the World Water Assessment Programme, the various decades for which UNESCO has been designated by the United Nations General Assembly as lead agency, and the promotion of freedom of expression and media and information development);
  • its ability to develop evidence-based policies drawing on the statistical and analytical work of the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) and several flagship publications, such as the EFA Global Monitoring Report or the World Water Report;
  • its role as leader, manager and guardian of global lists of sites, inscribed upon request of Member States, such as for World Heritage, Biosphere Reserves or Intangible Cultural Heritage.
As UNESCO becomes more involved in capacity development, it will have to explore new modalities of cooperation and knowledge sharing. It will have to broaden its partnerships, extending beyond the traditional partners of government agencies and working more with civil society.

The discussion concludes:
The question may not be so much “what future for UNESCO”, but “what UNESCO for the future”. Faced with a complex, rapidly changing world, and a fiercely competitive environment, UNESCO needs to develop its responsiveness, flexibility and adaptability, advocacy, ability to build multi-stakeholders coalitions, and ability to mobilize and implement resources – at the global, regional and country levels.

Tuesday, October 23, 2007

SHS Views 10

UNESCO Social and Human Sciences Sector Magazine
Dossier: The dialogue between researchers and policy makers: what is the role of UNESCO? / Interview with Juan Somavia: “Decent work is everybody's business” / Social Transformations: Young people at the heart of UNESCO’s General Conference

The world moves, UNESCO too

“We provide a unique international platform where governments, researchers and civil society come together to cast words into action.”

As UNESCO prepares for the 34th session of the General Conference at its Paris Headquarters, another international event in France is also drawing the world’s attention – the 6th Rugby World Cup. Confined for a long time to a select few countries, this sport has grown to global proportions to encompass all continents today. While the spirit of the game has remained the same, the sport itself has undoubtedly evolved; new rules have been introduced and new traditions formed.

Monday, October 22, 2007

e-Journal of the General Conference

UNESCO publishes an electronic journal of the General Conference. It provides you with an updated summary of the work of the General Conference on a daily basis. It goes online early every morning during the Session.

Each issue provides information on the day’s meetings, brief summaries of the debates of the previous day, the provisional agenda for the following day’s meetings, the list of speakers for the plenary meetings of the day, and announcements of official visits and other key official events.

UNESCO Courier: Special Edition for the 2007 General Conference

Six hundred and thirty-one million dollars – this is the minimum amount UNESCO needs to operate for the next two years. The budget will be set at the 34th session of UNESCO’s General Conference, which brings together - in Paris, from 16 October to 3 November - the representatives of the Organization’s 193 Member States who will also determine the 2008-2009 programme. A preview of the Organization’s future priorities is presented in this issue of the UNESCO Courier.

Related materials
Click here to go to the Special Edition of The UNESCO Courier.

Saturday, October 20, 2007

Science and Technology for Sustainable Development and the Role of UNESCO

The Ministerial Round Table on "Science and Technology for Sustainable Development and the Role of UNESCO", will be held at the 34th session of UNESCO’s General Conference in UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, on 26-27 October 2007.As a background document, a review of Science and Technology meetings has been elaborated as a contribution to the identification of the issues to be addressed.

UNESCO General Conference - 34th Session

The 34th session of the General Conference, which every two years brings together the Member States of UNESCO, is being held from 16 October to 3 November in Paris.

Two ministerial round tables – on education and on science – a youth forum and an international civil society forum are on the agenda of the session. Close to 2,000 participants are expected, including numerous ministers and some ten heads of State and government who will take the floor before representatives of the Organization’s 193 Member States.

UN Competitive Recruitment Examinations

The United Nations is holding a competitive recruitment examination in February 2008, for U.S. CITIZENS who are interested in entry-level professional posts. A maximum of 40 of the most qualified applicants in each field will be invited to take the exam. The UN must receive applications for it by October 31, 2007.

EXAMINATION CRITERIA ( all must be met)

  1. Be no more than 32 years old as of December 31, 2008 (UN requirement).
  2. Have at least an undergraduate degree (advanced degree is an advantage but is not required) in one of the following occupational fields or related areas:
    • Finance
    • Information Technology
    • Political Affairs
    • Program Evaluation
    • Environment
    • Statistics
  3. Be fluent in English and/or French, the two working languages of the Secretariat. Knowledge of additional official languages of the UN (Arabic, Chinese, Russian, Spanish) is a definite advantage.
The competitive recruitment exam appears to have been given once a year, You can find out more about this and other UN employment examinations at the exam page of the UN Office of Human Resource Management website.

The United Nations Office of Human Resource Management website provides more information on employment opportunities and conditions in the United Nations system..

You may also find links to the job websites of many of the larger intergovernmental agencies on Thoughts About K4D (blog).

There is an earlier aritcle on how to get a job with UNESCO on the UNESCO in the Spotlight blog.

U.S. NatCom Newsletter: July/August/September 2007

The U.S. National Commission for UNESCO has published its third newsletter for the year. The contents are:

The issue also provides links to UNESCO sites describing its search for people to fit key jobs in the organization.

UNESCO: What is it? What does it do?; 2006

UNESCO has published this new edition of its very useful and informative booklet:

The document, in a PDF format, briefly describes UNESCO's history and charter, with sections devoted to each of UNESCO's major program areas.

This is an update of the 2003 edition by the same title.

Friday, October 19, 2007

Executive Board adopts three flagship projects for Africa

On 10 October, UNESCO’s Executive Board adopted the Plan of Action for Africa proposed by the Director General of UNESCO with emphasis on three flagship projects. These are:
  • the initiative for capacity-building in science policy;
  • science, technology and engineering education; and
  • the establishment of an African Virtual Campus.
In light of the Board’s decision, UNESCO will launch an African Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Initiative (ASTIPI) to develop national science, technology and innovation (STI) policies for the numerous African countries still lacking one. UNESCO will work with these countries to reform their science systems, in cooperation with the other UN agencies belonging to the S&T Cluster working with the African Union’s (AU) New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD). UNESCO will mobilize the necessary expertise, in consultation with the AU and NEPAD, to train 100 specialists in policy analysis between 2008 and 2010. In parallel, an ASTIPI postgraduate course will be designed and implemented, short-term executive workshops will be run for senior government officials and an African e-library of science, technology and innovation policy will be set up. With regard to the other two flagship projects, the Executive Board requested the Director-General to ensure that that on science, technology and engineering education contributed to the revitalization of higher education and included the development of policies conducive to the retention of qualified personnel. As for the African Virtual Campus, it will be based on the model of the Avicenna Virtual Campus put in place in 15 Mediterranean countries by UNESCO between 2002 and 2006 with European Commission funding.

Science Policy for Africa

Research-Africa.Net provides this story:

'The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (Unesco) has approved a proposal to set up an African Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Initiative (Astipi). The initiative will help African countries draft national science, technology and innovation (STI) policies.

"The absence of a regulatory environment has been a constant cause for concern for scientists who believe the situation impacts negatively on the continent� s ability to reduce poverty. Last month, the Economic Commission for Africa reported that 33 out of 53 countries in Africa are still without science ministries in a development that has weakened the industry�s ability to negotiate for favourable policies.

"Unesco hopes the Astipi will help countries create a legislative environment to reform their science systems. The Astipi, to be implemented with the help of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (Nepad), will kick off with a training program for 100 specialists in policy analysis. The two-year program will begin in 2008.

"'In parallel, an Astipi postgraduate course will be designed and implemented, short-term executive workshops will be run for senior government officials and an African e-library of science, technology and innovation policy will be set up,' Unesco said.

"The international body also approved two other projects to develop science in Africa. The science, technology and engineering education initiative will work towards revitalising higher education through the development of policies to the retain qualified personnel. An African Virtual Campus, to be funded by the European Commission, is also underway."

Thursday, October 18, 2007

United Nations Day and Week

The anniversary of the entry into force of the United Nations Charter -- 24 October 1945 -- has been celebrated as United Nations Day since 1948. It has traditionally been marked throughout the world by meetings, discussions and exhibits on the achievements and goals of the Organization. In 1971, the General Assembly recommended that Member States observe it as a public holiday.

Read more about UN Day Activities.

United Nations Day in the United States has been established by Presidential Proclamation to commemorate the establishment of the United Nations. It is celebrated very generally in all states and American possessions.

In the Washington, DC metropolitan area that observance, coordinated by the United Nations Association of the National Capital Area, extends from October 20 to October 28, 2007.

UNESCO and US Library of Congress -- The World Digital Library

UNESCO and the US Library of Congress will join forces to build a World Digital Library, following the signing of an agreement by James H. Billington, the Librarian of Congress and, Abdul Waheed Khan, UNESCO’s Assistant Director-General for Communication and Information, at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris on 17 October 2007.

The World Digital Library initiative will digitize unique and rare materials from libraries and other cultural institutions around the world and make them available free of charge on the Internet. These materials include manuscripts, maps, books, musical scores, sound recordings, films, prints and photographs.

Sunday, October 14, 2007

Planet Earth: From Space to Place

The first television image of the Earth from space,
taken by the Television Infrared Observation Satellite
(TIROS-1) on April 1, 1960. (Image by NASA)

This exhibition is to be inaugurated on October 16th, at the opening of the General Conference. More than 3,000 people are expected to visit the exhibition, including a dozen Heads of State, Delegations of Member States, Ministers of Education, Science and Communication, and representatives of intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations and foundations.

The exhibition focuses on five themes:
  • The Earth System,
  • The Dynamic Earth,
  • The Diverse Earth,
  • The Changing Earth and
  • Respecting the Earth.
UNESCO’s activities are to be explained through panels, photographs and multimedia with particular emphasis on:
  • the role of remote sensing in monitoring from space those changes on the Earth relating to heritage and water resources;
  • the concept of ‘terroir’ (or "the land") as a model for sustainable development; and
  • challenges resulting from faced by indigenous peoples.
Venue: UNESCO Headquarters, Hall Ségur. (Paris, France)

Start date - 2007-10-16

End date - 2007-11-03

"Future Directions for National Reviews of Science, Technology, and Innovation in Developing Countries"

National reviews of science, technology, and innovation are designed to help chart a course that encourages systems of scientific inquiry and broadens the engagement of scientific evidence in the policymaking process. The methods used for these reviews have varied between countries and among the agencies involved. To learn from past experiences, in April 2003 some 60 representatives from 12 developing countries and international organizations discussed the impacts of previous science and technology reviews, studied how ongoing national assessments had been designed and were being implemented, and collectively deliberated on how future reviews might be enhanced. The organizations represented at the workshop included the World Bank, Sida, UNCTAD, OECD, and the Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD). The summary of that meeting was published jointly by UNESCO and the IDRC in 2003. (PDF, 66 pages.)

Tuesday, October 09, 2007

Singapore rejoins UNESCO

Singapore has become UNESCO’s 193rd Member State, following the deposition in London today of its instrument of adhesion. This ceremony marks return of Singapore to UNESCO after 22 years absence.

In recent years UNESCO has seen the return of the United States of America (2003), and the adhesion to the Organization of Serbia (2000), Timor-Leste (2003), Brunei Darussalam (2005) and Montenegro (2006). Tokelau became an Associate Member in 2001. UNESCO now has 193 Member States, one more than the United Nations.

Singapore will participate in the upcoming 34th Session of UNESCO’s General Conference, which will be held in Paris from 16 October to 3 November. Its delegation will be led by the Minister of Education and Manpower for Singapore, Gan Kim Yong.

Saturday, October 06, 2007

Ambassador Oliver Calls For Focus, Supports Budget Increase

Ambassador Louise Oliver addressed the Executive Board of UNESCO on October 3. Her remarks are published on the website of the U.S. Permanent Delegation to UNESCO. After expressing support for the medium term strategy, she said:
However, despite the hard work of the drafting group and its excellent co-chairmen, we think that the C5 (report with the proposed program and budget) is still overly ambitious. Certainly we are pleased that the C5 includes expected results for UNESCO’s initiatives, but is it really possible for the Secretariat to achieve those results in only two years, especially if we insist that their work is of high quality?

And what will happen if Member States continue to add to the work of the Secretariat with resolutions that call for new activities and programs, instead of focusing on the ones we already have? Unfortunately it seems that we still have multiple visions for UNESCO.

Mr. Director General, we are pleased that your vision includes strengthening UNESCO’s organizational structure so that our programs can achieve long-term sustainable results. Although the United States has consistently advocated a zero nominal growth budget, and believe that was needed in past budget cycles to encourage UNESCO to become more efficient and effective, we have decided to support your $631 million dollar budget scenario because the additional funds will help reinforce UNESCO’s infrastructure, establish an ethics program for UNESCO staff, and strengthen initiatives focused on the needs of Africa and the developing world.
Ambassador Oliver also addressed the science programs specifically in the following terms:
Improving the quality of the work of the two science sectors, with an emphasis on capacity building, continues to be a top priority for the United States. Given the importance of science, technology, and engineering, particularly for the developing world, UNESCO must play a leadership role in this area. In addition to implementing the recommendations of the Science Review Panel, UNESCO must not waste its limited resources by duplicating work being done in other UN agencies. This will also enable us to give more support to successful programs like the IOC, which has achieved worldwide recognition for its work.

Friday, October 05, 2007

New UNESCO-American Museum of Natural History Program

Source: AMNH Tour Announcement
UNESCO World Heritage Tour: El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala
November 08, 2008 - November 17, 2008

UNESCO’s World Heritage Center and the American Museum of Natural History have created a new World Heritage Expeditions program. It will be a new travel series exploring the ongoing efforts for the conservation and preservation of some of the world’s outstanding cultural and natural sites.

Last week in New York, at an event marking UNESCO’s partnership with the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), UNESCO Secretary General Koïchiro Matsuura underlined the importance of the 1972 World Heritage Convention, under which 851 sites are protected in 141 countries, and explained how the conservation process relies on the active development of partnerships with national governments, the general public, the private sector, the media and with the scientific and research community.

The World Heritage Program was started by UNESCO as a result of a U.S. initiative. It is now seen by many as UNESCO's flagship program.

Source: AMNH Tour Announcement
UNESCO World Heritage: Turkey
May 11, 2008 - May 25, 2008

Check out the AMNH Expeditions Website for information on future Expeditions.

Thursday, October 04, 2007


The aims of UNESCO Clubs are those of UNESCO itself:
"to contribute to peace and security by promoting collaboration among the nations through education, science and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, for the rule of law and for the human rights and fundamental freedoms which are affirmed for the peoples of the world, without distinction of race, sex, language or religion, by the Charter of the United Nations."
UNESCO Clubs have three main functions:
  • training,
  • dissemination of information and
  • action.
Action is the essential condition for the existence of a UNESCO Club – the other functions do not take on their full value unless they lead to action.

Since the first UNESCO Club was founded in 1947, the Clubs have been very valuable partners for the Organization. In 2006, there were some 3.700 UNESCO Clubs in more than 100 countries throughout the world.

Originally, Clubs were mainly for young people; nowadays, adult and mixed Clubs (which bring together young people and adults) are becoming much more frequent.Club members include people of all ages and nationalities from every walk of life. they share a commitment to UNESCO’s ideals and work to translate them into reality on the ground. Members are therefore well placed to present the views of civil society to decision-makers.

Read "Frequently Asked Questions about UNESCO Clubs, Centres and Associations", a recent UNESCO publication with a succinct discussion of the UNESCO Club movement.

There is a good history of the UNESCO club movement available from the UNESCO website:

UNESCO Clubs, Paths of Light;
Towards a history of the Clubs (1947-1996)

Worldwide Action in Education, published by UNESCO in 1993 and focusing on its education program, has a brief discussion of UNESCO Clubs, and a longer, useful section titled "You and UNESCO".

If you know of a UNESCO Club or Association in the United States, please let us know. If you want to start one, contact Americans for UNESCO and we will try to help with information and advice.

"UNESCO: What is it? What does it Do?

UNESCO has just published a new version of this short, informative booklet on its objectives, programs, organization, and operation.

UNESCO - the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was founded on 16 November 1945. Its fundamental purpose, recognizing that wars begin in the minds of men, was to build in those minds the defenses of peace.

Today, UNESCO functions as a laboratory of ideas and a standard-setter to forge universal agreements on emerging ethical issues. The Organization also serves as a clearinghouse – for the dissemination and sharing of information and knowledge – while helping Member States to build their human and institutional capacities in diverse fields. In short, UNESCO promotes international co-operation among its 192* Member States and six Associate Members in the fields of education, science, culture and communication.

Read more about UNESCO
from the UNESCO website.

Monday, October 01, 2007

New Director of UNESCO's Information Society Division

Miriam Nisbet, an information law expert from the USA, has just taken office as Director of UNESCO's Information Society Division. Ms Nisbet succeeds Elizabeth Longworth, of New-Zealand, who now heads the Office of UNESCO’s Director-General.

With a Doctor in Law (University of North Carolina, USA, 1977) and a B.A. in History (University of North Carolina, USA, 1971), Ms Nisbet was Staff Attorney at the National Association of Attorneys General in 1977/1978 and then worked for the US Department of Justice from 1978 to 1994 where her last position was Deputy Director of the Office of Information and Privacy.

She worked at the National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, from 1993 to 1999 where she first occupied the post of Special Assistant to the Archivist of the US and then Special Counsel for Information Policy. Since 1999 she has been Legislative Counsel at the American Library Association.

In addition, Ms Nisbet was a member of the US Delegation to The Hague Conference on Private International Law, of the American Bar Association and of the American Law Institute; she was also President of the American Society of Access Professionals and a member of its Board of Directors.

The Information Society Division is one of the three Divisions of UNESCO’s Communication and Information Sector, that is led by Abdul Waheed Khan.


The Secretary General of UNESCO prepared this progress report on the science programs in preparation for the upcoming meeting of the Executive Board:
A draft plan for the possible implementation of the recommendations emerging from the Overall Review of Major Programmes II and III is in the process of finalization, for presentation to the General Conference at its upcoming session (34 C/13). The plan will also be shared with members of the Overall Review Committee at their sixth meeting, which will take place during the General Conference (25 October 2007). Furthermore, in order to facilitate the Conference’s decision-making as concerns the science programmes, a mapping of science activities in the United Nations system has been prepared and will also be presented to the forthcoming General Conference (34 C/INF.13). Finally, in line with 176 EX/Decision 7, the international science programmes, as well as the Organization’s main science partners, have been consulted on the possible implementation of the Review Committee’s recommendations. The consultation of regional groups is ongoing and will come to an end just before the 34th session of the General Conference.

Natural sciences

There has been a major shift in the importance accorded to global climate change on the international political agenda, reflected in two new initiatives of the Secretary-General: to mainstream climate change into all relevant programmes and work streams of the United Nations system; and to “green” the system’s administration.

With climate an important component of UNESCO’s environment activities, the Director-General established an Intersectoral Task Force on Global Climate Change (TFGCC – DG/Note/07/27 of 29 June 2007) to enable the Organization to effectively contribute to these new initiatives. The TFGCC’s mandate is to reposition the Organization and redefine the interdisciplinary framework and platform for UNESCO’s climate activities through the preparation of a new strategy and implementation plan. The Task Force has so far held two meetings, producing a draft strategy, currently under consideration by the Director-General. The strategy aims to ensure a holistic approach that draws on the Organization’s recognized areas of comparative advantage and provides a cooperative and coherent contribution to the Secretary-General’s initiative. Once finalized, it will be shared with Member States.

IOS, the TFGCC and the Natural Sciences Sector are carrying out an audit of the Organization’s on-site energy use and conservation measures in order to set realistic targets for change. The final report will include implementation measures and recommendations for dissemination to the Organization’s field offices, with follow-up workshops scheduled for the months following the publication of the report. Already, measures have been taken in-house to improve energy efficiency, reduce waste, and reduce UNESCO’s carbon footprint, including through the renovation works (e.g. double-paned windows and energy-efficient lighting); to upgrade the network cabling and electronic switches to improve bandwidth for effective web conferencing so consultative meetings with colleagues and other partners located away from Paris can be conducted in this manner; and in-house awareness-raising.

Following the move of the World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP) secretariat to
Perugia towards the end of this year, work on the World Water Development Report (WWDR), which will be launched at the fifth World Water Forum (Istanbul, Turkey – March 2009) will move from the current preparatory phase to the in-depth scientific research and analysis that underpins the Report. The evaluation of WWAP Phase II is now completed. Its conclusions are very positive, especially as concerns the Programme’s role in raising global awareness of the water crisis and strengthening regional cooperation, and its Reports’ presentation of a comprehensive overview of water and policy issues, including those that may be of a controversial nature in some regions.

Dr Ardakanian, the Director of the Regional Centre on Urban Water Management, a UNESCO category 2 centre based in Tehran (Iran), was recently appointed Director of the UNWater Decade Programme on Capacity-Building, based in Bonn (Germany). He will direct one of the two offices of the secretariat for the International Decade for Action – Water for Life that is coordinated by UN-DESA. The other office, in Zaragoza (Spain), has as its Coordinator a former UNESCO colleague, Carlos Fernández-Jáuregui. This arrangement follows the decision of UNWater to establish two offices for this Decade.

It should be noted that to improve cooperation with field partners and ensure the proper coordination of activities of the water-related category 2 centres, a strategy has been prepared and endorsed by the 40th session of the Bureau of the International Hydrological Programme (13-15 June 2007). The strategy has now been submitted to the IHP Intergovernmental Council (June 2007), which should formally adopt it at an out-of-session meeting in September 2007, prior to its presentation to UNESCO’s governing bodies. Information on the strategy can be found in document 177 EX/INF.9.

At its 40th session, the Bureau of IHP (June 2007) constituted a working group to review the draft thematic water programmes foreseen within the framework of the recently adopted Action Plan for DESD, in order to properly articulate them as fully-fledged programmes and ensure that they are scientifically sound. This is particularly true of thematic programme 8 on Education for Sustainable Water Development. The working group is also tasked to help engage all the relevant actors involved in UNESCO’s water activities, including the IHP National Committees and water-related centres, in order to ensure their full participation in DESD.

In the area of biodiversity, the Local and Indigenous Knowledge Programme, in association with the Australian National Commission for UNESCO, organized an international experts meeting on Indigenous Knowledge and Changing Environments: Biological and Cultural Diversities in Transition (Cairns, Australia, 19-23 August 2007). Specialists from both the natural and social sciences, and indigenous peoples, deliberated on past, current and future responses of local and indigenous communities to changing environments, as mediated by their indigenous knowledge.

Four new members have joined UNESCO’s Global Network of National Geoparks. Three are located in Europe: Papuk Geopark (Croatia), Lochaber Geopark (Scotland, United Kingdom), and the Geological and Mining Park (Italy). The fourth, the Langkawi Geopark, is the first member from South-East Asia (Malaysia) to join the Network. The Global Network now has 52 members, present in 17 Member States. The Overall Review of Major Programmes II and III recommended that UNESCO’s inscribed sites be examined for their appropriateness for coordinated global monitoring of climate change, biodiversity loss and sustainable development. Biosphere reserves, geoparks and World Heritage sites are already being used as locations for monitoring change, including through the use of earth observing space technology coordinated through the “Open Initiative on the Use of Space Technologies to Monitor Natural and Cultural Heritage of UNESCO Sites”, testing adaptation strategies for sustainable development, and addressing mitigation efforts related to carbon sequestration.

The recently launched Quranic Botanic Gardens project (May 2007), jointly undertaken between the Natural Sciences and Culture Sectors, facilitates linkages between traditional Islamic respect for natural habitats, the cultures inspired by the Holy Books of Islam, environmental protection, biodiversity conservation, and science education.

In follow-up to the Plan of Action adopted by the G8 at its St Petersburg meeting, the Russian Federation organized a ministerial conference entitled “Energy in a Changing World” at UNESCO (31 May-1 June 2007), with the support of UNESCO. The main output was a Message addressed to this year’s G8 Summit in Heiligendamm, Germany, presented by the Russian Federation.

Closely linked to climate issues, the main exhibition at the 34th session of the General Conference – “Planet Earth: From Space to Place” – anticipates the International Year of Planet Earth (2008), highlighting the Organization’s work related to the sustainable development of our planet and demonstrating some of the long-standing earth science contributions which underpin the United Nations’ efforts on climate.

In response to Recommendation 8 of the Overall Review Committee’s Report, a ministerial round table on the theme “Science and Technology for Sustainable Development and the Role of UNESCO” will be organized during the 34th session of the General Conference (25-26 October 2007). The outcome of the round table will be a final communiqué setting out new issues and trends that science, technology and innovation policy makers need to address.

Work in science policy has been expanded with advisory services being provided to Member States including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Congo, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Mongolia and Nigeria. The Egyptian Ministry of Education agreed on 13 June 2007 that UNESCO launch the Egyptian Virtual School Campus, which will be put in place over the next four years through the Avicenna Virtual Campus and help expand training opportunities for Egypt’s one million teachers. Other countries in the region have expressed interest in pursuing this same methodology of teacher training in the sciences.

Social and human sciences

In the last six months, the Social and Human Sciences Sector has continued its action, with particular emphasis on youth, to promote ethical reflection and the establishment of innovative action research networks on issues relating to social development, democracy and action to combat discrimination.

Responding to the need to promote discussions and capacity-building activities in the field of bioethics in Africa, the International Bioethics Committee (IBC) held for the first time in sub-Saharan Africa its fourteenth ordinary session in Nairobi, Kenya, from 17 to 19 May 2007. The meeting gathered together more than 150 participants from 53 countries, with the active participation of numerous government representatives and experts from various African countries. On this occasion, IBC devoted an entire day of work and exchange to African perspectives on bioethics. An informal meeting of the World Commission on the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge and Technology (COMEST) was convened in Paris from 22 to 24 July 2007 to review its activities and discuss the findings and recommendations of the expert team on the Overall Review of Major Programmes II and III.

UNESCO continued to make very good progress with the implementation of the International Convention against Doping in Sport which entered into force on 1 February 2007. As of 1 September, there were 64 States Parties to the Convention across all five of the UNESCO regions. In order to promote the Convention, UNESCO organized a regional conference among Arab Member States in collaboration with ISESCO and the Tunisian Government from 11 to 13 June 2007. The participants adopted a final declaration which inter alia called upon Arab Member States to become States Parties to the Convention prior to the 34th session of the UNESCO General Conference.

In the context of UNESCO’s efforts to strengthen the policy-research nexus, the eighth Intergovernmental Council session of the MOST Programme was held in Paris from 16 to 18 July 2007. The participants emphasized the Programme’s development towards an international platform for horizontal cooperation, peer learning and exchange among high-level policy-makers in charge of social development, as well as the consolidation of MOST as a continuous, multiple flow interface between policy-makers, social scientists, NGO representatives and practitioners. During the meeting, a ministerial round table of Ministers of Social Development took place to discuss the institutionalizing of the MOST Fora of Ministers of Social Development and the strengthening of regional cooperation on issues related to social development.

Wishing to extend its action to young people, the Sector continued to organize regional youth forums on the theme “Youth and dialogue among civilizations, cultures and peoples”. After the Pacific region and the Euro-Mediterranean region in 2006, a forum was held for Asia in the Republic of Korea from 25 to 29 June 2007 and another for the Americas in Mexico from 9 to 15 September 2007. UNESCO’s first African Youth Forum will be held from 24 to 28 September 2007 in Burkina Faso. All of the conclusions of these forums will be submitted to the Youth Forum of the General Conference, on 12 and 13 October 2007, and will provide inputs to the discussions of the ministerial round table on science and technology in the service of sustainable development, which will be held on that occasion.

Furthermore, World Philosophy Day, which will be hosted this year by Turkey, will be celebrated on 15 November 2007 and its theme will be “Dialogue: among whom and for what purpose?”.

In order to contribute to global reflection on new trends and challenges in the field of human rights and democracy, the Sector is currently preparing, in close consultation with Member States, a plan of action for the sixtieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The commemorative events and activities will take place on 10 December 2007. An International Conference on “Democracy and Human Rights in Africa” will also be held in Cairo, Egypt, in December 2007, co-organized with the Egyptian National Council for Human Rights, and with the cooperation of the African Union, the League of Arab States and the International Organization of the Francophonie.

Finally, the regional network of the Coalition of Cities against Racism and Discrimination in Asia and the Pacific will be officially launched next October, on the occasion of the World Congress of United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) which will be held in Jeju Island, Republic of Korea (28-31 October 2007).

Institutes and centers under the auspices of UNESCO (category 2) and indication of “parent” sector (as of February 2007)

1. International Research and Training Centre for Rural Education (INRULED), Baoding, China
2. Asia-Pacific Centre of Education for International Understanding (APCEIU), Inchon, Republic of Korea
3. Guidance, Counselling and Youth Development Centre for Africa (GCYDCA), Lilongwe, Malawi
4. Regional Centre for Educational Planning (RCEP), Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
5. International Centre for Girls’ and Women’s Education in Africa (CIEFFA), Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Natural sciences
6. International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation (IRTCES), Beijing, China
7. Regional Humid Tropics Hydrology and Water Resources Centre for South-East Asia and the Pacific (HTC Kuala Lumpur), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
8. Water Centre for the Humid Tropics of Latin America and the Caribbean (CATHALAC), Panama (note: the agreement between UNESCO and the Government of Panama expired in December 2006 and its renewal is pending)
9. Regional Centre on Urban Water Management (RCUWM), Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran 10. International Centre for Pure and Applied Mathematics (ICPAM), Nice, France
11. Regional Centre for Training and Water Studies of Arid and Semi-arid Zones (RCTWS), Egypt
12. International Centre on Qanats and Historic Hydraulic Structures (ICQHHS), Yazd, Islamic Republic of Iran
13. Latin American Physics Centre (CLAF), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil*
14. Regional centre for biotechnology training and education, India
15. International Centre for Water Hazard and Risk Management (ICHARM), Tsukuba, Japan
16. Regional Water Centre for Arid and Semi-arid Zones of Latin America and the Caribbean (CAZALAC), La Serena, Chile
17. European Regional Centre for Ecohydrology, Łódz•, Poland
* Established in 1962 prior to the formulation of guidelines pertaining to UNESCO institutes and centres.
18. International IHP-HELP Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science, University of Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom
19. International Research and Training Centre on Urban Drainage (IRTCUD), Belgrade, Serbia
20. Regional Centre on Urban Water Management for Latin America and the Caribbean – Instituto de Investigación y Desarrollo en Agua Potable (CINARA), Cali, Colombia (note: the signing of the agreement between UNESCO and the Government of Colombia is pending)
Social and Human Sciences
21. International Centre for Human Sciences (ICHS), Byblos, Lebano
22. International Institute for Central Asian Studies (IICAS), Samarkand, Uzbekistan
23. International Institute for the Study of Nomadic Civilizations (IISNC), Ulan Bator, Mongolia
24. Nordic World Heritage Foundation (NWHF), Oslo, Norway
25. Regional Centre for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Latin America
(CRESPIAL), Cusco, Peru
26. Regional Centre for Book Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (CERLALC) Bogotá, Colombia
Communication and Information
27. ISSN International Centre for the Registration of Serial Publications (ISSN), Paris, France Cross-cutting
28. International Children’s Centre (ARTEK), Ukraine